Brief to the Quebec Government
"Towards a government policy to fight against racism and discrimination - For the full participation of Quebecers from cultural communities"
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
CRRF's Background & Role In This Process
- Situating "Race" in the language of "Immigrant and Cultural communities"
- Focus on institutional racism
- Experiences of racialized and ethnic communities
- Focal point for the coordination and accountability of the policy
- Québec action plan against racism
- Collection of race-based statistics
- Monitoring and public accountability
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
The Canadian Race Relations (CRRF) welcomes the opportunity to participate in the Québec Government's consultation "Towards a Government Policy to Fight Against Racism and Discrimination and the Full Participation of Quebecers from Cultural Communities". Given the increasing diversity among the Canadian and Québec populations, including racial, cultural, immigrant, ethnic, among other identities, this consultation represents an important step that is being taken by the Québec Government to address the barriers faced by groups and to ensure their full participation in Québec society.
he CRRF is pleased to see the concrete steps that the Québec Government has been taking in the recent past to engage with Québec society on the various social agenda issues that impact the quality of life of all segment of its population, and in particular those communities that are marginalized. This latest action to develop an anti-racism policy is an exemplary step for other levels of governments across Canada. We are also encouraged to see the importance that the Québec government assigns to its role in supporting and promoting the treaties, agreements and principles established and recognized in the international arena, including those to which the Canadian government and Québec are signatories
CRRF's Background & Role In This Process
The CRRF is a national organization that is committed to building a national framework for the fight against racism and all forms of racial discrimination in Canadian society.
The organization was established as one part of the 1988 Japanese Canadian Redress Agreement between the Government of Canada and Japanese Canadians, to work at the forefront of efforts to combat racism and all forms of racial discrimination in Canada. Under the terms of the agreement, the CRRF received a one-time endowment of $24 million. The CRRF is a registered charitable organization and operates on income derived from investments and donations.
The CRRF carries out its mandate through five key areas of activities:
- Contract Research Program which funds and publishes research reports on contemporary issues of racism in Canada;
- Initiatives Against Racism Program which funds community initiatives to raise awareness and combat racism;
- Awards of Excellence Program which acknowledges outstanding initiatives in anti-racism work throughout Canada. This program is complemented by a symposium to share information and facilitate networking among organizations and agencies involved in anti-racism work;
- Publications and Clearinghouse on racism and anti-racism(which includes newsletters, "Facts About Series"; annotated bibliographies in the Critical Reading series and the research journal "Directions", among others)
- Education and Training - workshops, seminars and conferences convened across the country to enhance education in both public and private institutions, and promote awareness of anti-racism issues.
Since its inception the CRRF has undertaken various roles and leadership in the fight to eliminate racism both in Canada and within the international context in areas such as education, policing, promoting dialogue among communities, contributing to evolving knowledge and understanding on the impact of racism.
The CRRF's participation in this process is in keeping with our vision and mandate which is as follows:
- Vision: To be a leading and authoritative voice and agent in the struggle to eliminate racism in all its forms and to promote a more harmonious Canada.
- Mission:To provide leadership to the building of a national framework for the struggle against racism in Canada. The Foundation will advance understanding of the past and present causes and manifestations of racism. The CRRF will provide independent national leadership and serve as a resource and facilitator in the pursuit of equity, healing, fairness and justice in Canada. The CRRF will contribute to Canada's voice in the international struggle against racism.
For its contribution to the World Conference Against Racism, in 2001, the CRRF consulted Canadian NGOs to develop the NGO Forum Position Paper. The paper provides an overview of Canadian race relations issues (Aboriginal Issues; Policing and the Criminal Justice System; Employment; Globalization; Immigrant and Refugee Issues; Education; and the Media).
The following year, the CRRF acted as interlocutor for the UN Special Rapporteur's visit to Canada, coordinating the participation of civil society in the various roundtable discussions and consultations that were held across the country with the Special Rapporteur.
Our participation in this forum is as an interested party with a mandate to affect public policies: ensuring that these policies are inclusive; do not subscribe to stereotypes, and, most importantly, do not perpetuate racism and racial discrimination. Accordingly, the CRRF views its role in this process as advocating for the development and advancement of strategies that confront and eliminate racism, including the development and implementation of public policies and action plans that counter racism.
Terminology: Naming "Race", "Racism" and "Racial Discrimination"
Similarly, terminology is an important element in any strategy to address or eliminate racism and racial discrimination. Over time terminologies and concepts in the discourse on race and racism have changed and evolved depending on the socio-political and geo-political context in which racism occurs. It is also an area of work that is fraught with tremendous denial, resistance, tension and challenges, evolving and ever-changing language, terminology, concepts and analyses. Much of this is typified in the discourse on the appropriateness and relevancy of using of the word "race" to categorize different groupings of people.
We agree with the consultation document that "race" is not a biological construct. However, it is a social and psychological construct that has material impact for people's lives and their daily realities.
It must be understood, that at its very core, regardless of a conscious decision to acknowledge or disavow "race", the reality of experiences of societies is such that race plays an important, if not definitive, role in constructing peoples realities and their social locations in society. It has material outcomes in terms of the socio-economic conditions socio-political conditions for different groups of peoples. The approach to de-emphasize race or make it non-essential, would suggest that using non-racial language will effectively neutralize the experiences between and among distinct groups who differ because of race. Peller's work on race consciousness delineates the point that exclusion of race removes any consideration of racial implications of any institutional practices of integrated arenas of social life.
While we agree with the Consultation Paper that not all forms of inequality or differential treatment faced by immigrants and/or cultural communities are accurately classified as racism and/or racial discrimination, the experiences of differential treatment, lack of access to opportunities, marginalization and/or exclusion that individuals and groups face because of being racialized makes this a very palpable reality for significant populations. Therefore, it requires governments to take a lead role in acknowledging and naming race as part of any strategy to eliminate the scourge that is racism.
The Ontario Human Rights Commission reiterates this understanding in their policy document. "Racism differs from simple prejudice in that it has also been tied to the aspect of power, i.e. the social, political, economic and institutional power that is held by the dominant group in society. In Canada and Ontario, the institutions that have the greatest degree of influence and power, including governments, the education system, banking and commerce, and the justice system are not, at this time, fully representative of racialized persons, particularly in their leadership".
A policy to address racism and racial discrimination therefore must confront the dynamic of power and privilege, and the societal values that encourage and sustain the imbalance of power and associated privilege which belongs to those who are White, as well as other social identities that have access to privilege whether they be gender, class, sexual orientation, and able-bodiedness, among others. Inevitably, a policy addressing racism and the racial discrimination with the aim of achieving "the full participation of Quebecers from cultural communities" must centrally integrate in its approach the aim to transform Québec society in a way that redistributes power between those who have power and those who do not. It will therefore require compelling those who have the power to change the reality of all Quebecers - government, politicians, educators, bureaucrats, judges, corporations, media - to share their power.
Historical - The linkages between the historical and contemporary context is essential to understanding how racism is manifested, embedded throughout society and has had an enduring effect on racialized groups and communities through successive generations. By acknowledging and incorporating the historical dimensions of racism, and that of the development of nations and societies, the policy will also take into account pre-existing factors such as the individual's or the community's already disadvantaged status.
International Agreement(s) - The Third World Conference Against Racism held in Durban South Africa, in 2001 raised the bar in the fight against racism and racial discrimination. It established standards and evolved the analysis and language in the discourse and practice of anti-racism.
For example, it draws the linkages between historical context and the present-day manifestations of racism and racial discrimination. It draws attention to the obligation of states to acknowledge historical wrongs and pay reparations. It outlines that a victim-oriented approach must be an important tool in any fight against racism and racial discrimination. It recognizes the fact that racism manifests differently for different groups; and draws specific reference to Africans and people of African descent, Asians and persons of Asian descent, indigenous peoples, migrants, refugees, minorities, among others. It recognizes that racism is pervasive and permeates throughout society, and systematically and systemically marginalize and exclude peoples through generations, through political regimes, through neo-liberal policies and even among groups who are themselves oppressed. It outlines an agenda that is forward looking and outlines the role for critical sectors in society, including governments, and civil society. (Durban Declaration & Program of Action, UN, 2001).
It is our view that the Durban Declaration and Program For Action (DDPOA), provides an important blueprint from which governments and civil society can develop strategies and actions to confront and eradicate racism. Additionally, any policy to fight racism and racial discrimination, must integrate as part of its core approach the fundamental principles espoused in the DDPOA.
SCOPE OF THE POLICY
Situating "Race" in the language of "Immigrant and Cultural communities"
The fluidity with which the terms "immigrant" and "cultural communities" in the consultation paper is of concern for several reasons. The use of the terms, without regard to race, appears to equate the experiences of immigrant and cultural communities as one and the same. It also suggests that race does not play a significant role in shaping the experiences of immigrants and cultural communities. It discounts the experiences of marginalization and exclusion that second and third generation racialized groups face, which are consistent with the experiences of their parents and grandparents. It also discounts the White Privilege that European immigrants inherit and which places them in an advantageous position for acceptance in the (host) society and access to opportunities and benefits and especially through successive generations.
It is essential that the policy names and includes "racialized groups" as specific to a grouping/community.
QUEBECER/ QUÉBECOIS IDENTITY
The aim of the Québec Government to build a pluralistic and inclusive society is very important. Pivotal to that goal is an understanding of how the societal labels that are intended to unite can also create and perpetuate the further marginalization and exclusion of those who are considered different. In particular the identity of a Quebecer and its definition is critical to the discussion and the development of an anti-racism policy for Québec.
While the government promotes an inclusive identity of a "Quebecer", the reality is that the understanding of who is "really" a "Quebecer" continues to be defined by the dominant group, in ways (e.g. use of certain vernacular - i.e. "pur laine") that create dividing lines of an "us" and "them" dynamic. Who decides when an individual becomes a "Quebecer"? What are the criteria to become a Quebecer? When do successive generations of immigrants, racialized peoples, and cultural communities, among others become "Quebecers"? How do institutions and systems within the Québec society perpetuate what may be seen by some groups as a "closed" definition of a "Quebecer". Inevitably, it is also a question of "fitting in"
It is our recommendation, that as part of this consultation, the task force examines the definition of the "Quebecer" identity. Furthermore, that the Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities engage in a public awareness campaign to broaden the definition of "Quebecer" and dialogue on the notion of "pur laine", among others to integrate the racial, ethnic, cultural, immigrant diversity that is represented in Québec society.
The exclusion of Aboriginal peoples from this policy is of concern. We understand and accept that experiences of marginalization and exclusion that Aboriginal peoples face, as the original inhabitants of Canada, extends beyond the scope of racism; and that the form of racism experienced by them is not the same as the experiences of racialized and ethnic groups (CRRF Taskforce on Aboriginal Issues Final Report, 1999). Nonetheless, because they also experience racism, it is important that their reality is integrated in the scope of the Québec Government's policy and strategy to fight racism and racial discrimination.
Focus on institutional racism
The Consultation Paper emphasizes the elemental role of prejudice and discrimination as being at the root of racism and racial discrimination. As such, much of the measures for change and eliminating racism are aimed at overcoming bias and prejudice at the individual attitudinal level and the discrimination at the individual's level of behaviour and, in turn, indirectly impacting the institutional practice.
While it is important that governments address prejudice and racial discrimination as contributing facets of racism, and remain vigilant in taking steps to change the behaviour of individuals who discriminate, the absence of any focus and priority placed on institutional and systemic racism is a crucial shortcoming. The elimination of institutional racism has more far-reaching implications, not only for the individual who is victimized, but for entire communities and the society as a whole.
History has shown that even with the creation and implementation of various human rights policies and legislations and, with Canada being a signatory to numerous international agreements that uphold equality rights and freedoms for all Canadians, racism and racial discrimination continue to be embedded and thrive in Canada at the individual, institutional and societal levels. Institutional structures and organizational cultures maintain institutional and systemic racism and, in effect, impede racialized groups from attaining full access to opportunities and benefits as citizens. (CRRF, NGO Forum Position Paper, 2001). This was reinforced by Doudou Diène, the UN Special Rapporteur on Racism and Racial Discrimination on his visit to Canada.
Research continues to demonstrate that the degree and depth of marginalization that racialized groups continue to experience is largely maintained through institutional policies and practices. Overall, most people will immediately object to any kind of direct expressions of racism and will support, even if it is a token gesture, symbolism of inclusively. However, beyond these token efforts the struggles of racialized groups are met with an arbitrary set of political, economic and cultural institutional power in the interest of "maintaining democracy"
Greater emphasis must be placed on addressing institutional racism and systemic racism. The policy must contemplate the formal and informal structures and processes that maintain the status quo, and acts as a barrier to access and effective participation of racialized groups. The extent to which the policy focuses on organizational structures (e.g. representation of racialized groups throughout the organization), decision making processes (that exclude, marginalizes certain group), and the organizational culture ( that maintains the status quo for dominant groups and makes it impossible for those who are seen as "different" to participate) as dimensions of the institutional racism and systemic racism.
Furthermore, there must be an understanding that the prevailing discourse of this society as being pluralistic, and as premised in the consultation paper, maintains the illusion that there is "tolerance", that this is a society in which every individual has an opportunity, that physical difference is irrelevant in determining one's status and that everyone has an equal chance of participating and achieving their full potential based on individual effort and merit. However, such assumptions bolster an entrenched denial of the experiences of racialized groups and perpetuate the inequity that these groups experience. It discounts the impact of historic disadvantaged status assigned to some groups and the legacy that individuals from these groups will carry, regardless of individual effort.
Experiences of racialized and ethnic communities
Any attempt to eliminate racism, must be victim-oriented. As such, the policy must clearly integrate the distinct realities of respective groups and communities. This requires the integration of the historical context and present-day experiences of these communities as it relates to the history of Québec and Canada.
This, by its very nature, also constructs the experiences of racism in ways that are distinct and particularized to respective groups and communities and defines their particular experiences of historical disadvantage. This understanding must be acknowledged and incorporated in any effort to develop and design strategies and measures to eliminate racism. The extent to which the experience of racism is faced by people of African descent is different from that which is faced by people of Asian descent, Aboriginal peoples, Arabs and Muslims, among others, has implications for the content of the policy and the type of strategic actions that will qualitatively and quantitatively change and improve their situations. This analysis was demonstrated by Agocs and Jain in their research on Systemic Racism in Employment in Canada. "Issues of discrimination in informal social behaviours in the workplace may differ for Aboriginal peoples, Blacks, and people of Asian and South Asian ancestry, as well as for immigrants as compared with Canadian-born persons, and women as compared with men."
The experiences of racism faced by racialized groups is also shaped by the extent to which these groups are placed in a hierarchy (by dominant society) whether on the continuum of victimhood, the extent of their disadvantaged status, and/or the extent to which they are seen to be non-threatening and can "fit in" with the status quo. This phenomenon of "hierarchizing" groups, is another level at which the power held by the dominant group is selectively used with racialized groups and Aboriginal peoples to determine which groups will have access, when and how.
PRIORITY AREAS FOR POLICY FOCUS
It is understood that racism is inherent in the structures, systems and throughout society.. While that is the case, we also know that there are particular sectors that have more far reaching impact on the lives of peoples, and in particular for racialized groups and their experiences of racism and social inequality. These sectors are education, policing, and justice, employment, media and youth.
Education is one of cornerstones for shaping a society's future development and growth. The role of educational institutions to impart knowledge, train the various actors in society and shape young minds makes this an important sector in which anti-racism principles, policies and actions must be firmly entrenched.
Some of the ways in which the education system perpetuates and contributes to the experiences of racism are: issues of racial profiling in the school system, the drop-out rates of racialized students in the school system, the under-representation and some cases lack of representation of racialized groups throughout the hierarchy of education institutions, and curricula that is non-reflective of the positive contributions of all peoples to the development of Québec society and Canada and/or perpetuates stereotypes and racist portrayals of some groups.
The strategies outlined in the consultation document address part of the actions that must be undertaken. However, much more needs to be done. There should be an auditing of policies, practices and the culture within the education environment to address and correct policies, programs and practices that contribute to and maintain the marginalization and exclusion of racialized groups in the education system. Representation of racialized persons throughout the school system, including the hiring, promotion and retention at all levels of hierarchy, within the education sector is a key area for systemic and institutional anti-racist change Collection and analysis of data as a means to effectively determine the existence of any form of discrimination and take steps to correct, and/or prevent any such treatment.
In the area of employment, systemic racism lives and thrives. Racialized groups face pervasive marginalization and exclusion at various levels throughout the employment continuum. Among the most common examples are: access to decent paying jobs; the barriers faced by domestics in the Live-In-Program; the plethora of barriers facing foreign trained professionals, including accessibility and availability of accreditations services, the cost of accreditation, lack of community consultation, lack of cooperation among stakeholders. For immigrants educated outside of North America working in their fields of professional training, the culture of the workplace that marginalizes and excludes and renders them invisible, and limits opportunities to career advancement and equal participation in the workplace (Kunz, Milan, Schetagne: 2000).
The implementation of an employment equity program by the Québec Government signalled to Québec society and particularly to marginalized groups, the intent to address barriers in the workplace. However, some of the continuing shortcomings of the employment equity initiatives are the lack of: effective monitoring of the program, progress in achieving the targets, the enforcement of the policy, particularly where employers have failed to follow through; and the "ghettoizing" target groups into entry-level occupational groups.
The need for public reporting and accountability continues to be of concern, especially for the communities who are impacted by these initiatives. While the announcement and implementation of such initiatives bodes well for governments, the actions that will make substantive qualitative and quantitative difference for communities and Québec society, overall is the effective monitoring of the program and strident steps that must be taken to enforce the legislation.
Policing & Justice
Racial profiling and other policing issues
Québec, and particularly Montreal, has had it share of issues between the police and racialized communities. Not unlike other parts of Canada, the issue of racial profiling has dominated police-community relations. In the past, the relationship between the policed and persons of African descent were at the forefront. Particularly, since September 11, 2001, Muslims and persons of Arab descent have increasingly become subject to racial profiling.
While the Montreal police has taken some steps to eliminate racial profiling and to improve relations, monitoring mechanisms must be put in place to ensure that racial profiling is discontinued. Such monitoring should include the recording of police stops by race.
The expression of hate towards racial and religious groups has been part of the Canadian fabric. Its manifestation is also sparked by geo-political events domestically and internationally, whether we look at issues of security, immigration and migration, social unrest, these are events that will have direct impact on racialized and religious groups and destabilize communities.
For many of these groups, the issue remains to be the lack of consistent and effective response and action by state authorities in the application of criminal legislation and other remedies to prosecute and respond to the perpetrators of hate crimes. Additionally, the disparity in the degree of responses and levels of support that is mobilized by institutions and state authorities to respective victim groups has also been signalled as another expression of racism.
"It is critical that governments demonstrate leadership to ensure the safety and human rights of all Canadians regardless of colour, ethnicity, nationality and/or religious belief. Where hate crimes have been perpetrated, police officials must be vigilant to maintain safety and security, and lay charges."
The role of government to provide adequate and sustainable resources, including funding to maintain the systems and mechanisms required to effectively investigate, prosecute hate crimes; and provide support and redress for victims. Similarly, the Québec government must invest adequate and sustainable resources into racialized and other marginalized communities who are at the forefront in battling these issues and who play a critical role in repairing their communities and finding solutions and.
The media, and particularly print, have vigorously fought against any attempt to regulate or place any controls on what they choose to publish. This leaves open the door for unbalanced coverage and columnists, most of whom have never been the victims of racism or racial discrimination. Complaints lodged with the Press Council do not provide the kind of response or satisfaction that would elicit greater caution in the representation of racialized person in the media.
In broadcasting, the situation presents a different situation. The Federal regulatory body, the CRTC is moving towards requiring greater representation of the "diversity of Canada", but it is still a slow process. The recent situation of the psychiatrist making racist comments about people of African descent, and before that, the radio station which lost its license because of the popular reaction, demonstrate how tenuous it is to enforce a sense of responsibility in the media. However, given that the media industry is not immune to institutional racism, it is important that vigilance is exercised in ensuring substantive measures are taken to monitor and hold the media accountable to not perpetuate racism or racial discrimination.
The media industry plays a significant role in defining and promoting culture, in particular the dominant culture. Culture itself is a structural barrier to the full participation of racialized and Aboriginal communities and people, in shaping and promoting particular values, images, identities, etc. Therefore, this underlying context has implications for how the media undertakes its responsibility to promote the public interest and act as a "watchdog".
For communities that are marginalized this impact can have even more far-reaching implications on their quality of life. The information that is produced and communicated through the news media, for example, helps to generate, shape and strengthen public opinion. The extent to which the news content is balanced in the portrayal of racialized and Aboriginal groups, news media personnel (in permanent positions and throughout the hierarchy within media organizations) are representative of the diversity of Québec's ethno-racial and religious and immigrant communities, among others. When ownership of media outlets is broadly distributed to reflect the diverse population, these are some of the measures that will address institutional racism and strengthen role of the media as a powerful arbiter in redistributing power and re-defining the social location of racialized and other marginalized groups.
An anti-racism policy and action plan for Québec must incorporate strategies and measures that ensure the media complies with anti-racist and human rights provisions including the effective enforcement of regulatory standards. As well, the media industry understands and fulfills its shared responsibility to address and eliminate racism and racial discrimination.
Outputs of the policy
Focal Point For the Coordination & accountability of the Policy
- The government must establish a focal point that is responsible for the overall coherent and integrated implementation of the anti-racism policy that is complemented by all other human rights policies and legislations. Furthermore, this focal point is responsible for the monitoring and reporting on the progress of the anti-racism action plan to eliminate racism.
- Establishing focal points for change within each government ministry. This should not be restricted to frontline levels within the organization, but must be situated at the most senior level of the respective ministries in the government, with statutory powers, and integrated in the core structure of the organization and not a political appointment that is tied to the leadership of the day.
- Integrate the achievement of anti-racism actions/goals as part of the performance management of all civil service staff, including senior management.
- Integrate the achievement of anti-racism actions/goals as part of the program performance and evaluation of each ministry.
- Openness to truly dialogue on racism and to listen to the voices and realities of communities without putting up defences or any kind of strategies that can be construed by communities as forms of resistance whether by the individuals, institutions or organizations. For example, resistance in the form of rhetoric that espouses the defending of Canadian ideals of individual rights, pluralistic society, and equality of opportunities as guises to block progressive measures that will transform the situations of victim communities.
- The need to acknowledge race as a social construct is important in influencing and shaping social relations.
- Adequate and sustainable resources (human, financial, technological) must be allocated to ensure the work of the change agents/focal point is effective and change is lasting.
- The strategy must incorporate monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess the effective implementation of strategies and their impact on communities.
- There must also be an accountability mechanism that incorporates the participation of the community in, and control of, the decision-making process of public institutions in this regard.
- Enforcement of the Policy - The need for the Human Rights Commission to vigorously address systemic discrimination cannot be overstated.
- Employment equity measures that centralizes an analysis of organizational culture which continues to uphold the status quo dominant group
- The Québec Government must develop an anti-racism policy that will provide the basis for and informs the development of the anti-racism action plan. A policy of this nature, must take into consideration, the economic, cultural, political and social arenas of society and the institutions that are comprise these sectors.
- The anti-racism action plan, in its approach, must also be directed at the economic, cultural, political and social arenas of Québec society.
- The plan should incorporate a review of administrative and criminal laws and the accompanying mechanisms to assess their effectiveness and identify areas for change and enhancement that will strengthen and improve their effectiveness and relevance. This includes the Québec Human Rights Commission, and which must also include measures such as broadening their mandate to deal with the evolving nature of human rights complaints that communities face, including equal treatment for non-citizens.
- All policies and legislation of Québec must be reviewed from an anti-racist perspective.
- The Action Plan must clearly articulate the role for government and civil society, including the private sector, and non-governmental organizations in the implementation, monitoring and accountability for the Plan
- The Action Plan must clearly identify the role that racialized, cultural and immigrant communities will play in the development, implementation and monitoring of the Plan.
- The establishment of a Hate Crimes Unit must be one the outcomes of the Action Plan.
- The collection of race-based statistics must be one of the policy and program measure incorporated in the action plan.
The collection of race-based statistics
The collection of race-based statistics is an important tool in assessing the participation of racialized groups in the various institutions and organizations and the impact of racism and racial discrimination on groups and communities. It provides quantitative evidence that can be instructive in the development of policies and programs to address racism and racial discrimination and effect substantive change.
Monitoring and public accountability
Central to the development and implementation of an effective policy and action plan is the priority that must be given to accountability, especially within the public sector organizations. Government ministries and agencies must first lead by example. The on-going concern that although the political arm of government may demonstrate the political will to initiate changes, the progress or efficacy of any initiative will depend largely on the will and performance of bureaucrats, who hold significant powers that can be leveraged to uphold or undermine efforts in this regard. Therefore, measures must be put in place to hold bureaucrats publicly accountable for efforts and progress in the work.
The various initiatives taken by the Québec Government in recent years to establish task forces and hearings on the subject of racism and inclusion of all Quebecers in the shaping of Québec's future is encouraging. Nonetheless, for communities who are the victims of racism, racial discrimination and other forms of social inequalities that marginalizes and excludes them, the more important signal the Québec Government can give is its uncompromising commitment to follow through on the recommendations coming out of this process and make substantive changes to correct the imbalance in power that racialized communities experience and to facilitate their full access to the rights, opportunities and benefits of the Québec society.
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Guérin, Daniel, et al. 2001. Le racisme voile chez les jeunes canadiens, in directions, vol. 1, no.2. Toronto
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